Category: Historical in Indonesia

Early History of Casino in Indonesia, Especially in Java Island

Hearing the word Casino in Indonesia will probably sound weirdest. But believe it or not, during the VOC occupation there was a legitimate casino in the Batavia fortress. This is what we will peel on our first article. Here’s a review of the history of casino beginnings in Indonesia and also like a legacy for https://judisakti.org as the pioneer of starting the gambling online platform.

During the VOC Occupation

During the VOC occupation in Indonesia precisely in Batavia in 1620. For obtaining high tax revenue, the VOC handed over permission to the Chinese Kapitan to open a casino inside or the fortress of Batavia. Souw Beng Kong became the casino manager and weigh houses for Chinese people. Kapitan found 20% of the results of the casino-casino tax that opened in Batavia. The game used is only two types.

INDONESIAN CASINO TITLE GAME

In the beginning of the casino in Indonesia, the game contained only two games, namely dice and card games. Both of these games come from traditional Chinese games. Because at that time a game like Baccarat, Roulette, or Blackjack was not yet born. Because card and dice gambling games are from China and were first available in their time, the following games were available at that time.

Dice Game

The dice gambling game at that time was the opposite of that found at the online casino at this time. The choice of bets is only large or small. Unlike now what has been most varied with more types of bets. And the dice used is still made of stone and not precision.

Card Games

In addition to dice games, there are also card games during the legal casino time in Batavia. Card games provided are also Capjiki games. At that time, playing cards were like those which at this time were not used in sophisticated casinos. That way the card gambling game available is a game of Capjiki. However, the full use of the matter until now has not been found.

Casino Development in Indonesia

During the reign of Governor Ali Sadikin, casinos were legal in Indonesia. But in contrast to the casino during the VOC, in the time of Bang Ali, the games provided were more sophisticated such as deft balls and even roulette. After the term of office expires, return gambling is prohibited in Indonesia. Because it is business that causes a lot of gambling businesses to run online.

That is our review of the history of casino beginnings in Indonesia. Hopefully reading to this article can increase your knowledge about gambling photos in Indonesia.

Thugs and Gambling in the Hindu Mataram Age

Recently the destruction of gambling is being promoted by our police. Likewise raids on thuggery and prostitution. Gambling, thuggery, and prostitution are felt to be one of the “diseases of society” that do not cause a lot of anxiety, such as imprisonment or crime. In the past, criminal acts were not often associated with gambling and prostitution. So to minimize these crimes, the peace apparatus always collaborates with gamblers or gamblers (gambling supervisors) and pedestrians (prostitutes).

Unfortunately gamblers and pedestrians are only recited briefly with royal officers who are more involved in the community, like tax officers and judicial officers, so you do not know what the role of gamblers and pedestrians is at that time. In this article, Jaypoker.com as the most trusted agen poker terpercaya in Indonesia want to digging this unique culture. Uniquely, the designation of gamblers and pedestrians is only on inscriptions found in East Java.

Ancient sources that reveal gamblers and peddlers include the Kuti Inscription (840 AD), Kancana (860 AD), Waharu I (873 AD), Barsahan (908 AD), Kaladi (909 AD), Sugih Manek (915 M), S unemployment (928 AD), Cane (1021 AD), and Hantang (1135 AD). Based on the information from these sources, restrictions, gambling, prostitution, drunkenness, and the like are among the forms of thuggery. To anticipate these negative actions, the authorities form a book on criminal law. What is very well known is the Kutara-Manawadharmasastra Book. This book then became the basis of Majapahit Legislation.

The application of the two books was a great success thanks to the ability of the executors, namely Raja Hayam Wuruk and Patih Gajah Mada. Both can carry Majapahit as a peaceful and prosperous country for decades.

Spoliation

Crime which at least revealed inscriptions, especially from the Hindu Mataram era, was a crackdown and murder. The relatively wide length is pronounced in the Balingawan Inscription (891 AD), as has been stated by Boechari’s epigraph (deceased), as follows: For a period of time the people of Balingawan village often felt uneasy because they too often paid fines on rah kasawur and wanke kabunan. Rah Kasawur is a bloody fight, while wanke kabunan are corpses exposed to dew. That is to say a murder that occurred at night then the body was thrown so that it was exposed to dew in the morning.

But the perpetrator of the fight and the murder is unknown. Time and time again the villagers found blood scattered and a corpse lay in the Gurubhakti moor in the morning. Because the moor is in the Balingawan district, it is the people of the village who must be responsible and pay the fine.

Various types of durians are generally in the element of an inscription called sukhaduhkha, which roughly means all bad and good actions in society. For example wakcapala (cursing others), hastacapala (fighting), mamuk (rampaging rampage), and amungpang (robbing, robbing, raping).

The existence of a problem of redemption can also be interpreted from the Mantyasih Inscription (907 AD). Because of that, Rakai Watukura Dyah Balitung handed over the gift of sima (the land that was drafted) to five patih in Mantyasih alternately. They are considered meritorious because they have filled the demand of the people of the village of Kuning in order to maintain peace in the streets. Since their existence, the people in Kuning village feel no longer afraid.

The same thing was revealed by the Kaladi Inscription (909 AD). Once there was a charcoal forest that alienated the villages of Gayam and Pyapya so that the residents of both villages became frightened. This is because the villagers always get an attack from Mariwung which creates the merchants and fishers feel anxious and anxious about their safety day and night (M. Boechari, 1986).

In the Hindu Mataram kingdom there was even a group of people who often disturbed peace (samahala). The Rukam inscription (907 AD) alludes to this, “… All the farmers of the village of Rukam requested protection for the monastery in Limwung against people who had not infrequently disturbed the security of the region …” (Titi Surti Nastiti et al, 1982).

Other forms of vain are informed of the Kamalagyan Inscription (1037 AD). This might be an ancient style sabotage. “… There is a group of people who want to destroy the dam that just passed. Even though the construction of the reservoir was carried out with community self-help and interference by the king …, “the excerpt was taken.

The case of pencopetan was proposed by the Wulig Inscription (934 M) and Baru (1030 AD), namely about picking up fish on the dam and picking up plants in the garden.

Fine

There is a crime, there must be a punishment. But until this time the inscription had not yet pronounced the amount of punishment imposed on the perpetrators. Only at a glance, the Wuatantija Inscription (880 AD) wrote that they were subject to fines in the form of … mas muang wuru wuruan 2 i one year …

Some inscriptions such as Waharu II (929 AD) recite a sentence in the form of a curse. The violator of durjana was sworn in so that his feet were hit by rotten mines, died of edema (enlarged stomach), went to five tribulations (pancamahapataka), suffered epilepsy, and got embarrassed.

The curse and oath were issued by the Wukayana Inscription (the number of the year was broken). Whoever dares to disturb sima in Wukayana is like a chicken head that has broken from its body and will not return. Like eggs that have been crushed, they will not return to intact again. If the person goes to the forest to snake a snake. When going to the fields to be struck by lightning even though it doesn’t rain. When you come to the river to be entangled with aquatic animals.

About legal awareness, people used to be worthy of imitation. They don’t judge themselves like today. The criminals must be brought to court, the rules. That’s where it is determined whether the criminal is charged with a fine or must be punished by the body. The amount of fine also varies. If you do anjarah (robbing), you will be fined 20,000, while if you have a maximum of 160,000. Whether or not the unit is known.

The fine, according to the information from archaeologist Slamet Pinardi (1986), was also imposed on a group of people (people who killed a husband and wife during the night to get their property) and ambaranang (people who burned houses in a village and residents who ran to outside killed).

The application of legal books in the past was the most stringent. This can be witnessed when Queen Sima shaves the child’s leg because she has violated the royal law. Even though all the ministers had asked for relief, still Queen Sima did not budge with her decision. We who live in the present, should have hard laws like those in Majapahit and rulers who don’t look like the Queen Sima.

5 causes of the collapse of the Majapahit – Hindu Kingdom in Indonesia

The Majapahit kingdom was the last Indianization kingdom in Indonesia; based in East Java, it was established between the 13th and 16th centuries. The founder of the Majapahit empire was Wijaya, a prince of Singhasari, who fled when Jayakatwang, ruler of Kediri, took over the palace. In 1292 the Mongol army came to Java to answer the insult to the Chinese emperor, Kublai Khan, by Kertanegara, king Singhasari, who had been replaced by Jayakatwang.

Wijaya collaborated with the Mongol army to surpass Jayakatwang; Wijaya then turned against the Mongols and removed them from Java. Factors causing the collapse of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms in general are as follows.

The absence of the formation of new leaders (regeneration), like those who were involved in the Majapahit Kingdom. Gajah Mada as Patih Amangkubhumi held all important positions, he did not give the next generation the opportunity to appear, to the extent that Gajah Mada died there was no capable and experienced successor.

The weakness of the central government as a result of the ongoing civil war such as the Paregreg War which weakened the domination of the kingdom like Bre Wirabhumi with the Wardhana Wikrama. The urgency of the kingdom as a result of the emergence of more and more powerful kingdoms. For example, the Majapahit kingdom was attacked by the Demak kingdom. The ongoing civil war was like the Paregreg War which actually weakened the dominance of the kingdom like Bre Wirabumi with the Wardhana Wikrama.

The large number of regions that have gouged out the impact of weak monitoring of the central government and its lower kingdoms created an independent kingdom and were no longer bound by the central government.

Economic and Trade Setbacks.
The public began to be interested in Islam which was spread from Malacca, Gresik and Tuban. The Majapahit kingdom collapsed in 1500 AD. The factors that resulted in the collapse of the Majapahit Kingdom were as follows:

1. There is no formation of new leaders (there is no regeneration).
2. Gajah Mada as Patih Amangkubumi holds all important positions. He did not give the next generation the opportunity to appear, to the point that after the death of Gajah Mada there was no capable and experienced successor.
3. Civil war weakens strength. The Paregreg War brought havoc to the people and the nobility, to the point that it weakened strength and there was no unity. The regions gouged out themselves, because the administration of the center of the weak and chaotic Majapahit Kingdom, all the dukes of Java and the kingdoms outside Java gouged out
4. The weakness of the central government in the impact of civil war resulted in the economic decadence of Majapahit. Trade in the Archipelago is levied by Malay and Islamic traders.
5. Entry and publication of Islam. The dukes and coastal areas of the inland areas that are Muslims feel they are not bound by the rule of the Majapahit Kingdom, to the extent that they are disobedient and loyal to the Hindu authorities.

The Majapahit kingdom collapsed slowly but certainly after the departure of the leader who brought it to victory, Hayam Wuruk.

After Hayam Wuruk’s death, many times Majapahit’s domination changed. The kingdom’s internal conflict stimulated war, accelerating the destruction of the kingdom which almost controlled the archipelago and even a number of Southeast Asian regions. It is still unclear what events mark the end of this kingdom, as many sources say that Majapahit collapsed due to an attack from the Islamic kingdom of Demak.

There were also those who recited the internal conflict between Bhre Kertabumi as the last king of Majapahit, attacked by Bhatara Wijaya who was also a member of the kingdom, which then felt the internal conflict ended the establishment of Majapahit.

But, of course the collapsed Majapahit was followed by the end of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in the archipelago. Because after the collapse of Majapahit, not a few emerging Islamic kingdoms were victorious. In Java Island itself was once the center of the Majapahit government, began to be replaced by the Demak Sultanate which was located on the northern coast of Java, this empire was also occupied by the Majapahit territory.

Not the first sultanate in the archipelago, before Demak had stood as much as the kingdom in the archipelago, for example Samudra Pasai which had existed since the 13th century. But arguably the dominant Demak is more powerful than as many sultanates that have already existed. The Demak Sultanate also helped accelerate the spread of Islam to all the archipelago, not only in Java. Islam also began to shift Hinduism and Buddhism which were previously dominant.

A number of dominant sultanates are also getting stronger, not just Demak. Like the Aceh Sultanate in Aceh, then Gowa – Tallo in Sulawesi, the Ternate and Tidore Sultanates in Maluku, and other sultanates. The collapse of Majapahit can be said to be the turning point of Indonesian history, because it ended the existence of the influence of the powerful Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in the archipelago. Islam is also the most dominant religion in Indonesia and it has survived until now.

4 Theory of Hindu Civilization That Developed in Indonesia

The entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is the longest period. The ancient Hindu religion that was present in the Indian mainland, entered Indonesia in a number of ways. Based on information from history, the entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is not separated from trade activities between Indian merchants and traders in the archipelago. But if we follow only one theory, you will not be able to learn more about the history of Hinduism in Indonesia. Below this will be broadly conveyed about the entry of Hinduism to Indonesia according to some versions.

The entry of Hinduism to Indonesia according to the History list
According to the history list, the entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is allegedly around the beginning of the fourth century. This is marked by the establishment of Kutai and Tarumanegara’s Hindu-style marriage. The presence of Hinduism into Indonesia marks the end of prehistoric times in Indonesia. The characteristics of the prehistoric change is in the writing of the writing. This is illustrated by a number of inscriptions found in the Kingdom of Tarumanegara that use Pallawa’s writings, the original Indian article. This shows that, Hinduism entered Indonesia and completed prehistoric times in Indonesia, stepping on the historical period.

Hindu Religion Carrier Enter Indonesia
Many theories convey how Hinduism entered Indonesia. Theories about the carrier of Hinduism into Indonesia are:

  • The Brahmin Theory

Brahman’s theory is conveyed by Van Leur. Van Leur assumes that Hinduism is brought by all Brahmins or all priests to Indonesia he assumes as such because all Brahmins are the ones who know the vedic book. In addition, Bhrahmanans who are responsible for the spread of Hinduism, belong to Indonesia.

The theory to this knight was invented by Majundar, Moekrji and Nehru. They wrote that Hinduism was brought by all Indian soldiers who wanted to conquer Indonesia and spread Hinduism. But seeing the existence of the kingdom in Indonesia, there is no single kingdom under Indian domination, although India’s influence in the Hindu kingdom in Indonesia is strongest, because the Indonesian nation at that time embraced Hinduism.

  • Waisya Theory

Waisya theory is conveyed by Krom. Based on information from Krom, Hinduism entered into Indonesia brought by all traders or groups waisya, The proof is not a few traders from India who beriaga in Indonesia then they spread the Hindu religion in Indonesia. This theory is strong, because since ancient times, the nations in the archipelago known as a great sword and sailor. So the interaction between the merchants in the archipelago with the sword of India most possible.

  • Sudra Theory

Another theory writes that Hinduism is carried by all slaves or groups of Shudra, they spread the Hindu religion for wanting to change their fate. The Sudra people who are the lowest group in the Hindu caste stratum enter Indonesia to earn a better life. But, this theory is not too strong, because rationally, the influence of the Sudra to spread Hinduism is not too great in provoking people in the archipelago

  • Reverse Flow theory

This backlash theory claims that the nation in the archipelago studied Hindu religion in India and then spread it back home in Indonesia. This theory is strong, but according to the history list, people in the archipelago just learn Hindu Religion to India (center of Hindu Religion) after a number of kingdoms in the archipelago adheres to Hinduism. This is illustrated from the history of the Sriwijaya kingdom, which sent a number of people to study Hinduism in India.

Hindu Heritage Historical Heritage in Indonesia

 

The entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is transported by all traders from India. Among the merchants there are those who live in Indonesia and carry their religious and cultural influences. Hindu culture in the past inherited a variety of historical relics. Hindu cultural history relics between different temples, inscriptions, statues, literary works (books), and traditions.

The following are historical relics of Hindu culture:

1. Temple

Temple is a building that often consists of three parts, namely the foot, body, and roof. In Hindu temples there are often statues of the three major deities in Hindu doctrine. The three gods are Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma is the creator god, Vishnu the god of the rearing, and the Shia god of the fuser. On the wall of the temple there is relief, the embossed images are often made with sculpting techniques. Relief tells a story.

The famous Hindu temple is Prambanan Temple or Loro Jonggrang Temple. Prambanan Temple was built in the 9th century on the border of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. Inside this temple there is a statue of Trimurti and relief that tells the story of Ramayana. People in the Ramayana story are Rama, Shinta, and Jatayu Bird.

Hindu temple relics: 

  • Prambanan
  • Dieng
  • Badut
  • Canggal
  • Gedong Sanga
  • Penataran
  • Sawentar
  • Candi Kidal
  • Singasari
  • Sukuh

2. Inscription

The inscription is a relic of history which contains articles from the past. It was copied on stone, metal, clay, and animal horns. Hindu relics inscription written in Pallawa and Sanskrit. The oldest inscription is Yupa Inscription, created around the year 350-400 AD Yupa inscriptions derived from the Kingdom of Kutai. Yupa is a stone pole used during the sacrifice. The sacrificial animal is moored on this pole. Yupa inscription consists of seven inscribed stones. The contents of Yupa Inscription is a poem that tells the King Mulawarman. Here is the composition of inscriptions Hindu cultural heritage.

Hindu royal heritage inscriptions : 

  • Kutai
  • Ciaruteun
  • Tugu
  • Jambu
  • Kebon Kopi
  • Cidanghiang
  • Pasir Awi
  • Muara Cianten
  • Canggal
  • Kalasan
  • Dinoyo
  • Kedu
  • Sanur

3. Statue

Hindu sculptural features include fauna and humans. Sculpture in the form of animals created because the fauna is perceived to have supernatural powers. The human statue was created to perpetuate certain figures and to reflect the goddess god. Example of the famous Hindu monument statue is Airlangga Statue is riding an eagle. In the statue, Airlangga is reflected as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

Statues of Hindu royal heritage : 

  • Trimurti
  • Dwarapala
  • Wisnu Cibuaya I
  • Wisnu Cibuaya II
  • Rajasari
  • Airlangga
  • Ken Dedes
  • Kertanegara
  • Kertarajasa

4. Literary works (book)

Literary works of Hindu royal heritage shaped kakawin or book. The relics contain a history list. Generally the literary works of Hindu history are written with Pallawa letters in Sanskrit on palm leaves. A familiar literary work between the different Books of Westayuda and the Book of Arjunawiwaha. The Book of the Westayuda is composed of the Lacking Professor and the Empress Pan. The Book of Westayuda contains the success story of King Jayabaya in unifying the Kingdom of Kediri and Kingdom of Jenggala. The Book of Arjunawiwaha contains the empirical life and success of King Airlangga. Here is the composition of Hindu history books in Indonesia.

Hindu historical books : 

  • Carita Parahayangan
  • Kresnayana
  • Arjunawiwaha
  • Lubdaka
  • Baratayuda

5. Tradition

Tradition is the habit of ancestors that are still run by society today. Hindu religious traditions are not found in the Balinese area because the majority of Bali’s population is Hindu. The tradition of Hindu religion that developed in Bali, among others:

  • Ceremony nelubulanin when baby 3 month old.
  • Cutting ceremony (mapandes).
  • The cremation ceremony called Ngaben. In the Ngaben tradition, the corpse was burned along with as many valuable items as the people burned.
  • Pilgrimage, which is to visit the tomb of a saint and the ancestral location of the ancestor is like a temple.