Category: Historical in Indonesia

4 Theory of Hindu Civilization That Developed in Indonesia

The entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is the longest period. The ancient Hindu religion that was present in the Indian mainland, entered Indonesia in a number of ways. Based on information from history, the entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is not separated from trade activities between Indian merchants and traders in the archipelago. But if we follow only one theory, you will not be able to learn more about the history of Hinduism in Indonesia. Below this will be broadly conveyed about the entry of Hinduism to Indonesia according to some versions.

The entry of Hinduism to Indonesia according to the History list
According to the history list, the entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is allegedly around the beginning of the fourth century. This is marked by the establishment of Kutai and Tarumanegara’s Hindu-style marriage. The presence of Hinduism into Indonesia marks the end of prehistoric times in Indonesia. The characteristics of the prehistoric change is in the writing of the writing. This is illustrated by a number of inscriptions found in the Kingdom of Tarumanegara that use Pallawa’s writings, the original Indian article. This shows that, Hinduism entered Indonesia and completed prehistoric times in Indonesia, stepping on the historical period.

Hindu Religion Carrier Enter Indonesia
Many theories convey how Hinduism entered Indonesia. Theories about the carrier of Hinduism into Indonesia are:

  • The Brahmin Theory

Brahman’s theory is conveyed by Van Leur. Van Leur assumes that Hinduism is brought by all Brahmins or all priests to Indonesia he assumes as such because all Brahmins are the ones who know the vedic book. In addition, Bhrahmanans who are responsible for the spread of Hinduism, belong to Indonesia.

The theory to this knight was invented by Majundar, Moekrji and Nehru. They wrote that Hinduism was brought by all Indian soldiers who wanted to conquer Indonesia and spread Hinduism. But seeing the existence of the kingdom in Indonesia, there is no single kingdom under Indian domination, although India’s influence in the Hindu kingdom in Indonesia is strongest, because the Indonesian nation at that time embraced Hinduism.

  • Waisya Theory

Waisya theory is conveyed by Krom. Based on information from Krom, Hinduism entered into Indonesia brought by all traders or groups waisya, The proof is not a few traders from India who beriaga in Indonesia then they spread the Hindu religion in Indonesia. This theory is strong, because since ancient times, the nations in the archipelago known as a great sword and sailor. So the interaction between the merchants in the archipelago with the sword of India most possible.

  • Sudra Theory

Another theory writes that Hinduism is carried by all slaves or groups of Shudra, they spread the Hindu religion for wanting to change their fate. The Sudra people who are the lowest group in the Hindu caste stratum enter Indonesia to earn a better life. But, this theory is not too strong, because rationally, the influence of the Sudra to spread Hinduism is not too great in provoking people in the archipelago

  • Reverse Flow theory

This backlash theory claims that the nation in the archipelago studied Hindu religion in India and then spread it back home in Indonesia. This theory is strong, but according to the history list, people in the archipelago just learn Hindu Religion to India (center of Hindu Religion) after a number of kingdoms in the archipelago adheres to Hinduism. This is illustrated from the history of the Sriwijaya kingdom, which sent a number of people to study Hinduism in India.

Hindu Heritage Historical Heritage in Indonesia

 

The entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is transported by all traders from India. Among the merchants there are those who live in Indonesia and carry their religious and cultural influences. Hindu culture in the past inherited a variety of historical relics. Hindu cultural history relics between different temples, inscriptions, statues, literary works (books), and traditions.

The following are historical relics of Hindu culture:

1. Temple

Temple is a building that often consists of three parts, namely the foot, body, and roof. In Hindu temples there are often statues of the three major deities in Hindu doctrine. The three gods are Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma is the creator god, Vishnu the god of the rearing, and the Shia god of the fuser. On the wall of the temple there is relief, the embossed images are often made with sculpting techniques. Relief tells a story.

The famous Hindu temple is Prambanan Temple or Loro Jonggrang Temple. Prambanan Temple was built in the 9th century on the border of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. Inside this temple there is a statue of Trimurti and relief that tells the story of Ramayana. People in the Ramayana story are Rama, Shinta, and Jatayu Bird.

Hindu temple relics: 

  • Prambanan
  • Dieng
  • Badut
  • Canggal
  • Gedong Sanga
  • Penataran
  • Sawentar
  • Candi Kidal
  • Singasari
  • Sukuh

2. Inscription

The inscription is a relic of history which contains articles from the past. It was copied on stone, metal, clay, and animal horns. Hindu relics inscription written in Pallawa and Sanskrit. The oldest inscription is Yupa Inscription, created around the year 350-400 AD Yupa inscriptions derived from the Kingdom of Kutai. Yupa is a stone pole used during the sacrifice. The sacrificial animal is moored on this pole. Yupa inscription consists of seven inscribed stones. The contents of Yupa Inscription is a poem that tells the King Mulawarman. Here is the composition of inscriptions Hindu cultural heritage.

Hindu royal heritage inscriptions : 

  • Kutai
  • Ciaruteun
  • Tugu
  • Jambu
  • Kebon Kopi
  • Cidanghiang
  • Pasir Awi
  • Muara Cianten
  • Canggal
  • Kalasan
  • Dinoyo
  • Kedu
  • Sanur

3. Statue

Hindu sculptural features include fauna and humans. Sculpture in the form of animals created because the fauna is perceived to have supernatural powers. The human statue was created to perpetuate certain figures and to reflect the goddess god. Example of the famous Hindu monument statue is Airlangga Statue is riding an eagle. In the statue, Airlangga is reflected as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

Statues of Hindu royal heritage : 

  • Trimurti
  • Dwarapala
  • Wisnu Cibuaya I
  • Wisnu Cibuaya II
  • Rajasari
  • Airlangga
  • Ken Dedes
  • Kertanegara
  • Kertarajasa

4. Literary works (book)

Literary works of Hindu royal heritage shaped kakawin or book. The relics contain a history list. Generally the literary works of Hindu history are written with Pallawa letters in Sanskrit on palm leaves. A familiar literary work between the different Books of Westayuda and the Book of Arjunawiwaha. The Book of the Westayuda is composed of the Lacking Professor and the Empress Pan. The Book of Westayuda contains the success story of King Jayabaya in unifying the Kingdom of Kediri and Kingdom of Jenggala. The Book of Arjunawiwaha contains the empirical life and success of King Airlangga. Here is the composition of Hindu history books in Indonesia.

Hindu historical books : 

  • Carita Parahayangan
  • Kresnayana
  • Arjunawiwaha
  • Lubdaka
  • Baratayuda

5. Tradition

Tradition is the habit of ancestors that are still run by society today. Hindu religious traditions are not found in the Balinese area because the majority of Bali’s population is Hindu. The tradition of Hindu religion that developed in Bali, among others:

  • Ceremony nelubulanin when baby 3 month old.
  • Cutting ceremony (mapandes).
  • The cremation ceremony called Ngaben. In the Ngaben tradition, the corpse was burned along with as many valuable items as the people burned.
  • Pilgrimage, which is to visit the tomb of a saint and the ancestral location of the ancestor is like a temple.