Author: Vigor

Early History of Casino in Indonesia, Especially in Java Island

Hearing the word Casino in Indonesia will probably sound weirdest. But believe it or not, during the VOC occupation there was a legitimate casino in the Batavia fortress. This is what we will peel on our first article. Here’s a review of the history of casino beginnings in Indonesia and also like a legacy for https://judisakti.org as the pioneer of starting the gambling online platform.

During the VOC Occupation

During the VOC occupation in Indonesia precisely in Batavia in 1620. For obtaining high tax revenue, the VOC handed over permission to the Chinese Kapitan to open a casino inside or the fortress of Batavia. Souw Beng Kong became the casino manager and weigh houses for Chinese people. Kapitan found 20% of the results of the casino-casino tax that opened in Batavia. The game used is only two types.

INDONESIAN CASINO TITLE GAME

In the beginning of the casino in Indonesia, the game contained only two games, namely dice and card games. Both of these games come from traditional Chinese games. Because at that time a game like Baccarat, Roulette, or Blackjack was not yet born. Because card and dice gambling games are from China and were first available in their time, the following games were available at that time.

Dice Game

The dice gambling game at that time was the opposite of that found at the online casino at this time. The choice of bets is only large or small. Unlike now what has been most varied with more types of bets. And the dice used is still made of stone and not precision.

Card Games

In addition to dice games, there are also card games during the legal casino time in Batavia. Card games provided are also Capjiki games. At that time, playing cards were like those which at this time were not used in sophisticated casinos. That way the card gambling game available is a game of Capjiki. However, the full use of the matter until now has not been found.

Casino Development in Indonesia

During the reign of Governor Ali Sadikin, casinos were legal in Indonesia. But in contrast to the casino during the VOC, in the time of Bang Ali, the games provided were more sophisticated such as deft balls and even roulette. After the term of office expires, return gambling is prohibited in Indonesia. Because it is business that causes a lot of gambling businesses to run online.

That is our review of the history of casino beginnings in Indonesia. Hopefully reading to this article can increase your knowledge about gambling photos in Indonesia.

Thugs and Gambling in the Hindu Mataram Age

Recently the destruction of gambling is being promoted by our police. Likewise raids on thuggery and prostitution. Gambling, thuggery, and prostitution are felt to be one of the “diseases of society” that do not cause a lot of anxiety, such as imprisonment or crime. In the past, criminal acts were not often associated with gambling and prostitution. So to minimize these crimes, the peace apparatus always collaborates with gamblers or gamblers (gambling supervisors) and pedestrians (prostitutes).

Unfortunately gamblers and pedestrians are only recited briefly with royal officers who are more involved in the community, like tax officers and judicial officers, so you do not know what the role of gamblers and pedestrians is at that time. In this article, Jaypoker.com as the most trusted agen poker terpercaya in Indonesia want to digging this unique culture. Uniquely, the designation of gamblers and pedestrians is only on inscriptions found in East Java.

Ancient sources that reveal gamblers and peddlers include the Kuti Inscription (840 AD), Kancana (860 AD), Waharu I (873 AD), Barsahan (908 AD), Kaladi (909 AD), Sugih Manek (915 M), S unemployment (928 AD), Cane (1021 AD), and Hantang (1135 AD). Based on the information from these sources, restrictions, gambling, prostitution, drunkenness, and the like are among the forms of thuggery. To anticipate these negative actions, the authorities form a book on criminal law. What is very well known is the Kutara-Manawadharmasastra Book. This book then became the basis of Majapahit Legislation.

The application of the two books was a great success thanks to the ability of the executors, namely Raja Hayam Wuruk and Patih Gajah Mada. Both can carry Majapahit as a peaceful and prosperous country for decades.

Spoliation

Crime which at least revealed inscriptions, especially from the Hindu Mataram era, was a crackdown and murder. The relatively wide length is pronounced in the Balingawan Inscription (891 AD), as has been stated by Boechari’s epigraph (deceased), as follows: For a period of time the people of Balingawan village often felt uneasy because they too often paid fines on rah kasawur and wanke kabunan. Rah Kasawur is a bloody fight, while wanke kabunan are corpses exposed to dew. That is to say a murder that occurred at night then the body was thrown so that it was exposed to dew in the morning.

But the perpetrator of the fight and the murder is unknown. Time and time again the villagers found blood scattered and a corpse lay in the Gurubhakti moor in the morning. Because the moor is in the Balingawan district, it is the people of the village who must be responsible and pay the fine.

Various types of durians are generally in the element of an inscription called sukhaduhkha, which roughly means all bad and good actions in society. For example wakcapala (cursing others), hastacapala (fighting), mamuk (rampaging rampage), and amungpang (robbing, robbing, raping).

The existence of a problem of redemption can also be interpreted from the Mantyasih Inscription (907 AD). Because of that, Rakai Watukura Dyah Balitung handed over the gift of sima (the land that was drafted) to five patih in Mantyasih alternately. They are considered meritorious because they have filled the demand of the people of the village of Kuning in order to maintain peace in the streets. Since their existence, the people in Kuning village feel no longer afraid.

The same thing was revealed by the Kaladi Inscription (909 AD). Once there was a charcoal forest that alienated the villages of Gayam and Pyapya so that the residents of both villages became frightened. This is because the villagers always get an attack from Mariwung which creates the merchants and fishers feel anxious and anxious about their safety day and night (M. Boechari, 1986).

In the Hindu Mataram kingdom there was even a group of people who often disturbed peace (samahala). The Rukam inscription (907 AD) alludes to this, “… All the farmers of the village of Rukam requested protection for the monastery in Limwung against people who had not infrequently disturbed the security of the region …” (Titi Surti Nastiti et al, 1982).

Other forms of vain are informed of the Kamalagyan Inscription (1037 AD). This might be an ancient style sabotage. “… There is a group of people who want to destroy the dam that just passed. Even though the construction of the reservoir was carried out with community self-help and interference by the king …, “the excerpt was taken.

The case of pencopetan was proposed by the Wulig Inscription (934 M) and Baru (1030 AD), namely about picking up fish on the dam and picking up plants in the garden.

Fine

There is a crime, there must be a punishment. But until this time the inscription had not yet pronounced the amount of punishment imposed on the perpetrators. Only at a glance, the Wuatantija Inscription (880 AD) wrote that they were subject to fines in the form of … mas muang wuru wuruan 2 i one year …

Some inscriptions such as Waharu II (929 AD) recite a sentence in the form of a curse. The violator of durjana was sworn in so that his feet were hit by rotten mines, died of edema (enlarged stomach), went to five tribulations (pancamahapataka), suffered epilepsy, and got embarrassed.

The curse and oath were issued by the Wukayana Inscription (the number of the year was broken). Whoever dares to disturb sima in Wukayana is like a chicken head that has broken from its body and will not return. Like eggs that have been crushed, they will not return to intact again. If the person goes to the forest to snake a snake. When going to the fields to be struck by lightning even though it doesn’t rain. When you come to the river to be entangled with aquatic animals.

About legal awareness, people used to be worthy of imitation. They don’t judge themselves like today. The criminals must be brought to court, the rules. That’s where it is determined whether the criminal is charged with a fine or must be punished by the body. The amount of fine also varies. If you do anjarah (robbing), you will be fined 20,000, while if you have a maximum of 160,000. Whether or not the unit is known.

The fine, according to the information from archaeologist Slamet Pinardi (1986), was also imposed on a group of people (people who killed a husband and wife during the night to get their property) and ambaranang (people who burned houses in a village and residents who ran to outside killed).

The application of legal books in the past was the most stringent. This can be witnessed when Queen Sima shaves the child’s leg because she has violated the royal law. Even though all the ministers had asked for relief, still Queen Sima did not budge with her decision. We who live in the present, should have hard laws like those in Majapahit and rulers who don’t look like the Queen Sima.

5 causes of the collapse of the Majapahit – Hindu Kingdom in Indonesia

The Majapahit kingdom was the last Indianization kingdom in Indonesia; based in East Java, it was established between the 13th and 16th centuries. The founder of the Majapahit empire was Wijaya, a prince of Singhasari, who fled when Jayakatwang, ruler of Kediri, took over the palace. In 1292 the Mongol army came to Java to answer the insult to the Chinese emperor, Kublai Khan, by Kertanegara, king Singhasari, who had been replaced by Jayakatwang.

Wijaya collaborated with the Mongol army to surpass Jayakatwang; Wijaya then turned against the Mongols and removed them from Java. Factors causing the collapse of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms in general are as follows.

The absence of the formation of new leaders (regeneration), like those who were involved in the Majapahit Kingdom. Gajah Mada as Patih Amangkubhumi held all important positions, he did not give the next generation the opportunity to appear, to the extent that Gajah Mada died there was no capable and experienced successor.

The weakness of the central government as a result of the ongoing civil war such as the Paregreg War which weakened the domination of the kingdom like Bre Wirabhumi with the Wardhana Wikrama. The urgency of the kingdom as a result of the emergence of more and more powerful kingdoms. For example, the Majapahit kingdom was attacked by the Demak kingdom. The ongoing civil war was like the Paregreg War which actually weakened the dominance of the kingdom like Bre Wirabumi with the Wardhana Wikrama.

The large number of regions that have gouged out the impact of weak monitoring of the central government and its lower kingdoms created an independent kingdom and were no longer bound by the central government.

Economic and Trade Setbacks.
The public began to be interested in Islam which was spread from Malacca, Gresik and Tuban. The Majapahit kingdom collapsed in 1500 AD. The factors that resulted in the collapse of the Majapahit Kingdom were as follows:

1. There is no formation of new leaders (there is no regeneration).
2. Gajah Mada as Patih Amangkubumi holds all important positions. He did not give the next generation the opportunity to appear, to the point that after the death of Gajah Mada there was no capable and experienced successor.
3. Civil war weakens strength. The Paregreg War brought havoc to the people and the nobility, to the point that it weakened strength and there was no unity. The regions gouged out themselves, because the administration of the center of the weak and chaotic Majapahit Kingdom, all the dukes of Java and the kingdoms outside Java gouged out
4. The weakness of the central government in the impact of civil war resulted in the economic decadence of Majapahit. Trade in the Archipelago is levied by Malay and Islamic traders.
5. Entry and publication of Islam. The dukes and coastal areas of the inland areas that are Muslims feel they are not bound by the rule of the Majapahit Kingdom, to the extent that they are disobedient and loyal to the Hindu authorities.

The Majapahit kingdom collapsed slowly but certainly after the departure of the leader who brought it to victory, Hayam Wuruk.

After Hayam Wuruk’s death, many times Majapahit’s domination changed. The kingdom’s internal conflict stimulated war, accelerating the destruction of the kingdom which almost controlled the archipelago and even a number of Southeast Asian regions. It is still unclear what events mark the end of this kingdom, as many sources say that Majapahit collapsed due to an attack from the Islamic kingdom of Demak.

There were also those who recited the internal conflict between Bhre Kertabumi as the last king of Majapahit, attacked by Bhatara Wijaya who was also a member of the kingdom, which then felt the internal conflict ended the establishment of Majapahit.

But, of course the collapsed Majapahit was followed by the end of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in the archipelago. Because after the collapse of Majapahit, not a few emerging Islamic kingdoms were victorious. In Java Island itself was once the center of the Majapahit government, began to be replaced by the Demak Sultanate which was located on the northern coast of Java, this empire was also occupied by the Majapahit territory.

Not the first sultanate in the archipelago, before Demak had stood as much as the kingdom in the archipelago, for example Samudra Pasai which had existed since the 13th century. But arguably the dominant Demak is more powerful than as many sultanates that have already existed. The Demak Sultanate also helped accelerate the spread of Islam to all the archipelago, not only in Java. Islam also began to shift Hinduism and Buddhism which were previously dominant.

A number of dominant sultanates are also getting stronger, not just Demak. Like the Aceh Sultanate in Aceh, then Gowa – Tallo in Sulawesi, the Ternate and Tidore Sultanates in Maluku, and other sultanates. The collapse of Majapahit can be said to be the turning point of Indonesian history, because it ended the existence of the influence of the powerful Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in the archipelago. Islam is also the most dominant religion in Indonesia and it has survived until now.

4 Reasons Why Indonesians Easily Accept Hindu Buddhist Teachings

There are not a few theories that struggle to explain how the process of entry of Hindu and Buddhist doctrines to Indonesia. However, apart from the whole theory, in fact these two religions has become a popular religion that followed the majority of Indonesian society at that time. The acceptance of the people and people of Indonesia at that time can not be separated from the existence of some of the underlying arguments. Here we will explain the argument why the people of Indonesia are easy to accept the whole Buddhist Buddhist doctrine with the proofs.

Why Indonesians Easily Receive Hindu Buddhist Teachings?
There are at least 4 propositions underlying why the people of Indonesia are easy to accept the doctrine of Hindu Buddhism in the past. The four arguments are the people of Indonesia who still do not know the religion, the nature of the open people, the common cultural similarities between Buddhist Hinduism with local beliefs, and the influence of the ruler of the archipelago at that time.

1. Indonesian people are not familiar with religion

The first reason behind why Indonesian people are easy to accept the Hindu Buddhist doctrine is the fact that the people of the archipelago at that time are still not familiar with religion. They are merely familiar with animistic beliefs and dynamism with limited knowledge. The arrival of the Indians who then spread the new teachings more perfect make them interested to learn it.

From the historical evidence available, Indonesian people’s interest in Buddhist Hindu religious doctrine is demonstrated by their active attitude to study the doctrine of both religions by coming directly to India.

Nalanda inscriptions found in South India for example, shows the request of the king of Sriwijaya for the king of Nalanda in order to make a monastery as a special location of Sriwijaya society who want to learn Buddhism directly in India. [Read Also: Royal Hindu Kingdom in Indonesia]

2. The open nature of the Indonesian people

In addition to the background of the archipelago nation that is still not familiar with religion, the acceptance of Hindu and Buddhist doctrine is also caused by the nature of the people of Indonesia, which is not uncommon times open to differences. That openness encourages social interaction and makes the spread of Hindu Buddhism easier.

3. Hindu Buddhism has a culture that is almost similar to the community’s initial belief

Cultural customs of Hinduism and Buddhism have in fact not a little similarity with the culture of animist beliefs and dynamism that is currently growing in the community. This is demonstrated by the similarity of punden staircases with the sacred format of Buddhist worship used for worship, the similarity of religious ceremonies, and the same belief in life after death.

The common cultural similarity between the Buddhist Hindu doctrine and the prevailing local beliefs, creating the spread and acceptance of the society towards the Buddhist Hindu doctrine becomes easier.

4. The influence of the ruler of the archipelago

The influence of the rulers of the archipelago who support the spread of Hinduism Buddhism became the argument why the people of Indonesia are easy to accept the doctrine of Hindu Buddhism in the past.

The point of view of the people of Indonesia at that time who saw their king as an ambassador of God encouraged them to follow what was the command and action of their king. When the king embraces Hindu or Buddhist religion, then all his people will do the same.

Well, so are the three propositions underlying why the people of Indonesia are easy to accept the doctrine of Hindu Buddhism. With these three theorems, Hinduism and Buddhism are encouraged to become two religions of some large societies in the archipelago to the extent that the birth of a number of kingdoms with the style of religion in the past.

4 Theory of Hindu Civilization That Developed in Indonesia

The entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is the longest period. The ancient Hindu religion that was present in the Indian mainland, entered Indonesia in a number of ways. Based on information from history, the entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is not separated from trade activities between Indian merchants and traders in the archipelago. But if we follow only one theory, you will not be able to learn more about the history of Hinduism in Indonesia. Below this will be broadly conveyed about the entry of Hinduism to Indonesia according to some versions.

The entry of Hinduism to Indonesia according to the History list
According to the history list, the entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is allegedly around the beginning of the fourth century. This is marked by the establishment of Kutai and Tarumanegara’s Hindu-style marriage. The presence of Hinduism into Indonesia marks the end of prehistoric times in Indonesia. The characteristics of the prehistoric change is in the writing of the writing. This is illustrated by a number of inscriptions found in the Kingdom of Tarumanegara that use Pallawa’s writings, the original Indian article. This shows that, Hinduism entered Indonesia and completed prehistoric times in Indonesia, stepping on the historical period.

Hindu Religion Carrier Enter Indonesia
Many theories convey how Hinduism entered Indonesia. Theories about the carrier of Hinduism into Indonesia are:

  • The Brahmin Theory

Brahman’s theory is conveyed by Van Leur. Van Leur assumes that Hinduism is brought by all Brahmins or all priests to Indonesia he assumes as such because all Brahmins are the ones who know the vedic book. In addition, Bhrahmanans who are responsible for the spread of Hinduism, belong to Indonesia.

The theory to this knight was invented by Majundar, Moekrji and Nehru. They wrote that Hinduism was brought by all Indian soldiers who wanted to conquer Indonesia and spread Hinduism. But seeing the existence of the kingdom in Indonesia, there is no single kingdom under Indian domination, although India’s influence in the Hindu kingdom in Indonesia is strongest, because the Indonesian nation at that time embraced Hinduism.

  • Waisya Theory

Waisya theory is conveyed by Krom. Based on information from Krom, Hinduism entered into Indonesia brought by all traders or groups waisya, The proof is not a few traders from India who beriaga in Indonesia then they spread the Hindu religion in Indonesia. This theory is strong, because since ancient times, the nations in the archipelago known as a great sword and sailor. So the interaction between the merchants in the archipelago with the sword of India most possible.

  • Sudra Theory

Another theory writes that Hinduism is carried by all slaves or groups of Shudra, they spread the Hindu religion for wanting to change their fate. The Sudra people who are the lowest group in the Hindu caste stratum enter Indonesia to earn a better life. But, this theory is not too strong, because rationally, the influence of the Sudra to spread Hinduism is not too great in provoking people in the archipelago

  • Reverse Flow theory

This backlash theory claims that the nation in the archipelago studied Hindu religion in India and then spread it back home in Indonesia. This theory is strong, but according to the history list, people in the archipelago just learn Hindu Religion to India (center of Hindu Religion) after a number of kingdoms in the archipelago adheres to Hinduism. This is illustrated from the history of the Sriwijaya kingdom, which sent a number of people to study Hinduism in India.

Hindu Civilization is Very Feeling in Bali

Not long ago I just finished listening to a book written by Prof. Dr. Nengah Bawa Atmadja, M.A. under the title “Genealogy of Majapahit Collapse – Islamization, Tolerance, and Defense of Hinduism in Bali”. I am interested in the title that I did not understand at first. What is the relationship Majapahit Collapse and Islamization? (this is of course we have been able to learn history at the school level but the background, motivation, and what actually happened still can not be revealed if only rely on the practice in school) What tolerance happened during the Islamization process? How can Hinduism survive amidst the onslaught of religious work (invitation has another religious character)?

Certainly as a wise reader we must be able to get rid of those views that have egocentric, ethnocentric, and even religious attitudes that want to shut down. Because the author wrote this book with not a bit of background and point of view as a historical researcher and cultural observer. There is no individual motive of either ethnicity and belief (religion) in this book. The author does not fight for Hindu readers at all. This book is purely a historical review of the collapse of Majapahit as the largest Hindu kingdom and the importance of the existence of Bali as perhaps the sole heir of the Majapahit Kingdom. Bali as a cultural center Hindu religion in Indonesia needs to re-establish its existence and as a tourism envoy Indonesia Bali island needs to regulate itself again.

This book discusses what actually happened to Majapahit Kingdom. Majapahit kingdom is a great kingdom and almost all of Southeast Asia has been conquered and all its colonies are subservient and obedient to the banner of the honor of Majapahit Kingdom. Very unlikely if the kingdom of Majapahit collapsed just like that. The rebellion of small kingdoms who have struggled to defect has certainly become very easy to break. So what exactly happened? To borrow a quote from William Durrant from his book entitled The Story of Civilization that “whatever great culture is undermined from within” will be collapsed as well. We can also assume a community of strong cultural roots will not be disturbed by the invasion of other cultural formats. The following things to be reached by the people of Bali. What happened to the Majapahit Empire is the waning of the authority of Majapahit leaders, there is no more authoritative substitute after Patih Gajah Mada, we have secretly agreed on this matter, corrupt government, the loss of cultural existence because of the Islamization process carried by the merchants, Muslim traders as well as the cause of Christianization carried out by European colonists who raised 3G (Gold, Glory, Gospel) on each invasion work. All these affairs are strung together into one and slowly destroy the identity of Majapahit Kingdom.

What happened to Bali today is almost close to what has happened to Majapahit. As a tourism axis of Indonesia is certainly that Bali will welcome the presence of many types and models of society that lift their respective cultures. Not even close can be the community groups will “create” the process of assimilation and acculturation. The following is felt by Majapahit. As a kingdom dependent on maritime and commerce of Majapahit is the paradise of all traders, all religious preachers (Indonesian society at that time still did not embrace animism and dynamism to the point of becoming the target of all preachers and religious broadcasters) and all seekers of hedonist satisfaction. Indonesia’s waters, which are the main routes of shipping and commerce, are certainly the main attraction for people outside Indonesia. Entrance through the end of Sumatra will all be docked towards Java and stop and settle in Majapahit. Referring back to Bali, Bali as a small island surrounded by archipelago with so many kinds of custom must endure. Even in the inner environment also Bali has started to “invansi” with the cultures that are transported by tourists both local and international.

If Bali as a cultural axis of Hinduism in Indonesia dragged in the current globalization as it is guaranteed the collapse of Majapahit will be repeated for the second time. The difference this time collapse of the collapse of customs and cultural identity is not the collapse of power.

How can Bali survive so far? How does Hindu customs in Balinese society not disappear amidst the “war” of religion that often happens in Indonesia? The answers to these questions are only one, namely tolerance. Among the oldest religious centers, Bali chose to be neutral and give the widest tolerance to immigrants and their culture. Widest but still have limits that have been set in the customary law of the Balinese people. As a tourist destination Bali should choose to survive and neutral. This has happened since the Majapahit nobles turned to Bali. They chose to be neutral amid the onslaught of Islamization and Christianization. There is no point in resisting the expansion and invasion of Islamic kingdoms like the Demak Kingdom, Samudera Pasai, and not a bit more. There is no use against the VOC that in fact has a fleet power far superior. They chose to retreat, remain silent, and survive but there is no intention to strike at any time. Because they have a clear goal, namely to keep Bali as the heir of the Majapahit Kingdom and as a model and format of Hindu society that is still in synergy until now. Hinduism for Balinese society has become not only a religious identity but has transformed into a lifestyle and a cornerstone of habit that needs to be maintained and preserved. Hinduism Has become the oldest inheritance for the Indonesian nation. As a resident of the Indonesian state who participates in having Bali let us help the efforts of all your ancestors in preserving the culture. Not in religion but in the name of culture. If Bali lost anything we can be proud of?

Elements of Hindu Cultural Civilization Affecting Indonesian Culture

The elements of Indian Hindu culture that came to provoke Indonesian culture consisted of at least seven elements:

  • Language (Sanskrit), as well as Pallawa letters

Before the Sanskrit entered Indonesia, the Indonesian nation already had Mother tongue. Where at this time has developed Austronesian language that developed in line with the growth of cultivation culture. After the Sankerta language entered accompanied by the use of the letter Pallawa, the nation of Indonesia entered into a period of history that opened with the founding of Kutai kingdom.

  • Technology, especially architecture of buildings and irrigation

Technology in this affairs is not just limited objects that seem today, but the technology in question is essentially a tool used to be able to master the environment. The system of equipment and technology of Hindu culture that provokes Indonesian culture can be seen in architectural and irrigation technology. A concrete example of the influence of the elements of equipment and technology is seen in the format of building temples on the island of Java, such as: Prambanan Temple, Borobudur Temple, Mendut Temple and others. However, it should be remembered that the influence of this part of Hindu culture is not directly swallowed by the Indonesian people, but feel the adjustment with the identity that belongs to the Indonesian people so that the temple format that is in Indonesia is not the same as the temples that are in India .

  • Economic System

The element of Hindu kebudyaan in the field of economic system that affect the culture of Indonesia is with the existence of the economic system contained in the Kingdom of Sriwijaya, that is with the construction of the largest port at that time, which is used as a location to stop all traders from anywhere. This is evidenced by the rapidly growing economic civilization of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya.

  • Social system

The element of Hindu culture in the field of the social system that provokes Indonesian culture in this affair is evident in the basic concept of the Kingdom system and the Color system that developed in Indonesia. Because, before Hindu culture into Indonesia, the Indonesian people are not familiar with the royal system and the Color system. This is proven by the first kingdom in Indonesia is the kingdom that beridentitaskan Hindu (Hindu kingdom) that is the kingdom of Kutai.

  • Knowledge system

In the system of knowledge, the influence of Hindu culture appears in medical science, which is contained in Usada’s books, the Law of Law between the differences in Manawadharmasastra, and the knowledge of sexology present in Kamasutra’s book.

  • Religion or Religion

Hindu culture gives influence in the field of religion that is in the form of Hinduism and Buddhism. In terms of belief or religion, the Indonesian people do not swallow Hindu cultural influence in the field of religion because before Hinduism came to Indonesia, the Indonesian people are familiar with the belief system for ancestral spirits which is a native habit of Indonesia adjacent to the worship for Sang Hyang Widhi is the influence of Hindu culture.

  • Art

The element of art is a very prominent element in a culture when compared with other elements. Concerning the art part of the Hindu culture that provokes Indonesian culture appears in the form of literary arts, building art, sculpture and ornamental art (Koentjaraningrat, 1980: 84).

Hindu and Buddhist Influence on the Kingdom Period in Indonesia

Kutai Kingdom

Kutai Kingdom is the oldest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia 4th century AD. Historical evidence with found 7 pieces of inscriptions in yupa format that uses Sanskrit letter Pallawa in the form of poetry. The inscriptions of Sanskrit inscriptions and Pallawa letters indicate that the Kutai kingdom has been influenced by Hinduism from India, where language and writings are not ruled by Brahmins who occupy the highest status in society. This group also presumably led the vratyastoma ceremony for the inauguration of Aswawarman and Mulawarman as king and Reverend Brahmin of Hinduism in the Kingdom of Kutai.

One of the inscriptions in the form of yupa recites that the king who ruled was King Mulawarman who is a great king, a virtuous, strong, Aswawarman’s son, granddaughter of Kundungga. Kudungga’s name is probably a native name that has not been influenced by India, while the word ending -warman is the name commonly used in India. This indicates that when Kudungga had a child named Aswawarman, Kutai’s kingdom had been influenced by Hinduism. Other inscriptions are all related to the yajna performed by Raja Mulawarman. According to the story of the locals, the Hindu Kingdom in East Kalimantan called Kutai Martapura is held to 25 generations. The last king had the name Dharma Setia surpassed by Prince Sinum Panji Mendapa who was Muslim at the beginning of the 17th century.

Kingdom of Tarumanegara

The kingdom of Tarumanegara stood in West Java during the 4-5 century AD. The ruling king is Purnawarman. Evidence of the existence of this kingdom seen from found 7 inscriptions include: Ciaruteun, Kebon Kopi, Jambu, Pasir Awi, Estuary Ciaten, Tugu, and Lebak. This inscription uses the letter Pallawa with Sanskrit. The seven inscriptions give an explanation about the existence of Purnawarman kingdom in West Java.

Among the most important are:

  • Ciaruteun Inscription

This inscription pronounces the existence of the former footprints like the foot of Lord Vishnu namely the glorious leg of Purnawarman, king in the courageous Taruma. While in Kebon Coffee pronounced elephant footprint image mentioned as elephant foot of Dewa Indra (Airawata).

  • Tugu Inscription

This inscription is the longest and most comprehensive inscription among the inscriptions of King Purnawarman. This prasasati recite King Purnawarman who successfully dig a river has the name Gomati flowing in the middle of the palace of King Purnawarman. Excavations are carried out in 21 days with a length of 12 km. The work was blocked by giving 1000 bulls to brahmins.

In addition to these inscriptions, there are 3 pieces of artifacts (statues) found:

  • Arca Rajarsi

In the monument inscription is also pronounced that this statue reflects rajarsi showing the properties of Vishnu-Surya, and Purnawarman felt the adherents of the doctrine. W.F. Stutterheim assumed the statue is Ciwa statue dating from the 11th century AD.

  • Arca Wisnu Cibuaya I

It is thought to date from the 7th century AD, felt to have similarities with Pallawa art style in South India from the seventh to the eighth centuries AD, or to Calukya (Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro, et al 1984: 43)

  • Arca Wisnu Cibuaya II

Found in Cibuaya region also, allegedly as a rather old statue seen from the side of the type of stone materials used, the format of the statue, the format of the body and crown.

From all the artifacts, both inscriptions and statues are found, it can be seen that the kingdom of Tarumanegara is influenced by Hinduism. This kingdom is the second kingdom in Indonesia. Elements of longing in the reign of King Purnawarman most clearly expressed in the inscriptions, among others, pronounced in Ciaruteun inscriptions about the image of the foot of the god Vishnu, inscription Guava about the footprint of elephant footprint Airawata the elephant of God Indra and this business describes the existence of elements which is contained in Rg.Weda. Furthermore, in Tugu inscriptions revealed about the implementation of the sacrifice ceremony after completion of the excavation of a river with the gift of 1000 cows to Brahmana. This expression indicates the existence of yadnya practice and gift for brahmana no different is the responsibility of execution of fund doctrine punia which is from the doctrine of Hinduism.

The elements of Hindu Indian customs that affect the customs of Indonesia during the kingdom of Tarumanegara especially during the reign of King Purnawarman can be seen from the habit of writing that has been using articles and Sanskrit language in addition to Hinduism. But Hindu influence is still not powerful on the group of ordinary people, but the elite aristocratic group of the kingdom of Purnawarman kingdom most strongly hold the Hindu culture of India. They are an educated group that controls Sanskrit and Pallawa letters. King Purnawarman himself is a devout and closest Hindu adherent to the Brahmin group. He gave 1000 slembu to this group inscribed in Tugu inscriptions, indicating the close proof of the relationship. Economically expressed in the inscription of Tugu, the excavation of the river Gomati shows that the king Purnawarman attach great attention to the welfare of society, especially in the field of agriculture and tranquility as the controller of the flood.

Hindu Heritage Historical Heritage in Indonesia

 

The entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is transported by all traders from India. Among the merchants there are those who live in Indonesia and carry their religious and cultural influences. Hindu culture in the past inherited a variety of historical relics. Hindu cultural history relics between different temples, inscriptions, statues, literary works (books), and traditions.

The following are historical relics of Hindu culture:

1. Temple

Temple is a building that often consists of three parts, namely the foot, body, and roof. In Hindu temples there are often statues of the three major deities in Hindu doctrine. The three gods are Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma is the creator god, Vishnu the god of the rearing, and the Shia god of the fuser. On the wall of the temple there is relief, the embossed images are often made with sculpting techniques. Relief tells a story.

The famous Hindu temple is Prambanan Temple or Loro Jonggrang Temple. Prambanan Temple was built in the 9th century on the border of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. Inside this temple there is a statue of Trimurti and relief that tells the story of Ramayana. People in the Ramayana story are Rama, Shinta, and Jatayu Bird.

Hindu temple relics: 

  • Prambanan
  • Dieng
  • Badut
  • Canggal
  • Gedong Sanga
  • Penataran
  • Sawentar
  • Candi Kidal
  • Singasari
  • Sukuh

2. Inscription

The inscription is a relic of history which contains articles from the past. It was copied on stone, metal, clay, and animal horns. Hindu relics inscription written in Pallawa and Sanskrit. The oldest inscription is Yupa Inscription, created around the year 350-400 AD Yupa inscriptions derived from the Kingdom of Kutai. Yupa is a stone pole used during the sacrifice. The sacrificial animal is moored on this pole. Yupa inscription consists of seven inscribed stones. The contents of Yupa Inscription is a poem that tells the King Mulawarman. Here is the composition of inscriptions Hindu cultural heritage.

Hindu royal heritage inscriptions : 

  • Kutai
  • Ciaruteun
  • Tugu
  • Jambu
  • Kebon Kopi
  • Cidanghiang
  • Pasir Awi
  • Muara Cianten
  • Canggal
  • Kalasan
  • Dinoyo
  • Kedu
  • Sanur

3. Statue

Hindu sculptural features include fauna and humans. Sculpture in the form of animals created because the fauna is perceived to have supernatural powers. The human statue was created to perpetuate certain figures and to reflect the goddess god. Example of the famous Hindu monument statue is Airlangga Statue is riding an eagle. In the statue, Airlangga is reflected as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

Statues of Hindu royal heritage : 

  • Trimurti
  • Dwarapala
  • Wisnu Cibuaya I
  • Wisnu Cibuaya II
  • Rajasari
  • Airlangga
  • Ken Dedes
  • Kertanegara
  • Kertarajasa

4. Literary works (book)

Literary works of Hindu royal heritage shaped kakawin or book. The relics contain a history list. Generally the literary works of Hindu history are written with Pallawa letters in Sanskrit on palm leaves. A familiar literary work between the different Books of Westayuda and the Book of Arjunawiwaha. The Book of the Westayuda is composed of the Lacking Professor and the Empress Pan. The Book of Westayuda contains the success story of King Jayabaya in unifying the Kingdom of Kediri and Kingdom of Jenggala. The Book of Arjunawiwaha contains the empirical life and success of King Airlangga. Here is the composition of Hindu history books in Indonesia.

Hindu historical books : 

  • Carita Parahayangan
  • Kresnayana
  • Arjunawiwaha
  • Lubdaka
  • Baratayuda

5. Tradition

Tradition is the habit of ancestors that are still run by society today. Hindu religious traditions are not found in the Balinese area because the majority of Bali’s population is Hindu. The tradition of Hindu religion that developed in Bali, among others:

  • Ceremony nelubulanin when baby 3 month old.
  • Cutting ceremony (mapandes).
  • The cremation ceremony called Ngaben. In the Ngaben tradition, the corpse was burned along with as many valuable items as the people burned.
  • Pilgrimage, which is to visit the tomb of a saint and the ancestral location of the ancestor is like a temple.