Category: Hindu Cultural

4 Theory of Hindu Civilization That Developed in Indonesia

The entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is the longest period. The ancient Hindu religion that was present in the Indian mainland, entered Indonesia in a number of ways. Based on information from history, the entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is not separated from trade activities between Indian merchants and traders in the archipelago. But if we follow only one theory, you will not be able to learn more about the history of Hinduism in Indonesia. Below this will be broadly conveyed about the entry of Hinduism to Indonesia according to some versions.

The entry of Hinduism to Indonesia according to the History list
According to the history list, the entry of Hinduism into Indonesia is allegedly around the beginning of the fourth century. This is marked by the establishment of Kutai and Tarumanegara’s Hindu-style marriage. The presence of Hinduism into Indonesia marks the end of prehistoric times in Indonesia. The characteristics of the prehistoric change is in the writing of the writing. This is illustrated by a number of inscriptions found in the Kingdom of Tarumanegara that use Pallawa’s writings, the original Indian article. This shows that, Hinduism entered Indonesia and completed prehistoric times in Indonesia, stepping on the historical period.

Hindu Religion Carrier Enter Indonesia
Many theories convey how Hinduism entered Indonesia. Theories about the carrier of Hinduism into Indonesia are:

  • The Brahmin Theory

Brahman’s theory is conveyed by Van Leur. Van Leur assumes that Hinduism is brought by all Brahmins or all priests to Indonesia he assumes as such because all Brahmins are the ones who know the vedic book. In addition, Bhrahmanans who are responsible for the spread of Hinduism, belong to Indonesia.

The theory to this knight was invented by Majundar, Moekrji and Nehru. They wrote that Hinduism was brought by all Indian soldiers who wanted to conquer Indonesia and spread Hinduism. But seeing the existence of the kingdom in Indonesia, there is no single kingdom under Indian domination, although India’s influence in the Hindu kingdom in Indonesia is strongest, because the Indonesian nation at that time embraced Hinduism.

  • Waisya Theory

Waisya theory is conveyed by Krom. Based on information from Krom, Hinduism entered into Indonesia brought by all traders or groups waisya, The proof is not a few traders from India who beriaga in Indonesia then they spread the Hindu religion in Indonesia. This theory is strong, because since ancient times, the nations in the archipelago known as a great sword and sailor. So the interaction between the merchants in the archipelago with the sword of India most possible.

  • Sudra Theory

Another theory writes that Hinduism is carried by all slaves or groups of Shudra, they spread the Hindu religion for wanting to change their fate. The Sudra people who are the lowest group in the Hindu caste stratum enter Indonesia to earn a better life. But, this theory is not too strong, because rationally, the influence of the Sudra to spread Hinduism is not too great in provoking people in the archipelago

  • Reverse Flow theory

This backlash theory claims that the nation in the archipelago studied Hindu religion in India and then spread it back home in Indonesia. This theory is strong, but according to the history list, people in the archipelago just learn Hindu Religion to India (center of Hindu Religion) after a number of kingdoms in the archipelago adheres to Hinduism. This is illustrated from the history of the Sriwijaya kingdom, which sent a number of people to study Hinduism in India.

Hindu Civilization is Very Feeling in Bali

Not long ago I just finished listening to a book written by Prof. Dr. Nengah Bawa Atmadja, M.A. under the title “Genealogy of Majapahit Collapse – Islamization, Tolerance, and Defense of Hinduism in Bali”. I am interested in the title that I did not understand at first. What is the relationship Majapahit Collapse and Islamization? (this is of course we have been able to learn history at the school level but the background, motivation, and what actually happened still can not be revealed if only rely on the practice in school) What tolerance happened during the Islamization process? How can Hinduism survive amidst the onslaught of religious work (invitation has another religious character)?

Certainly as a wise reader we must be able to get rid of those views that have egocentric, ethnocentric, and even religious attitudes that want to shut down. Because the author wrote this book with not a bit of background and point of view as a historical researcher and cultural observer. There is no individual motive of either ethnicity and belief (religion) in this book. The author does not fight for Hindu readers at all. This book is purely a historical review of the collapse of Majapahit as the largest Hindu kingdom and the importance of the existence of Bali as perhaps the sole heir of the Majapahit Kingdom. Bali as a cultural center Hindu religion in Indonesia needs to re-establish its existence and as a tourism envoy Indonesia Bali island needs to regulate itself again.

This book discusses what actually happened to Majapahit Kingdom. Majapahit kingdom is a great kingdom and almost all of Southeast Asia has been conquered and all its colonies are subservient and obedient to the banner of the honor of Majapahit Kingdom. Very unlikely if the kingdom of Majapahit collapsed just like that. The rebellion of small kingdoms who have struggled to defect has certainly become very easy to break. So what exactly happened? To borrow a quote from William Durrant from his book entitled The Story of Civilization that “whatever great culture is undermined from within” will be collapsed as well. We can also assume a community of strong cultural roots will not be disturbed by the invasion of other cultural formats. The following things to be reached by the people of Bali. What happened to the Majapahit Empire is the waning of the authority of Majapahit leaders, there is no more authoritative substitute after Patih Gajah Mada, we have secretly agreed on this matter, corrupt government, the loss of cultural existence because of the Islamization process carried by the merchants, Muslim traders as well as the cause of Christianization carried out by European colonists who raised 3G (Gold, Glory, Gospel) on each invasion work. All these affairs are strung together into one and slowly destroy the identity of Majapahit Kingdom.

What happened to Bali today is almost close to what has happened to Majapahit. As a tourism axis of Indonesia is certainly that Bali will welcome the presence of many types and models of society that lift their respective cultures. Not even close can be the community groups will “create” the process of assimilation and acculturation. The following is felt by Majapahit. As a kingdom dependent on maritime and commerce of Majapahit is the paradise of all traders, all religious preachers (Indonesian society at that time still did not embrace animism and dynamism to the point of becoming the target of all preachers and religious broadcasters) and all seekers of hedonist satisfaction. Indonesia’s waters, which are the main routes of shipping and commerce, are certainly the main attraction for people outside Indonesia. Entrance through the end of Sumatra will all be docked towards Java and stop and settle in Majapahit. Referring back to Bali, Bali as a small island surrounded by archipelago with so many kinds of custom must endure. Even in the inner environment also Bali has started to “invansi” with the cultures that are transported by tourists both local and international.

If Bali as a cultural axis of Hinduism in Indonesia dragged in the current globalization as it is guaranteed the collapse of Majapahit will be repeated for the second time. The difference this time collapse of the collapse of customs and cultural identity is not the collapse of power.

How can Bali survive so far? How does Hindu customs in Balinese society not disappear amidst the “war” of religion that often happens in Indonesia? The answers to these questions are only one, namely tolerance. Among the oldest religious centers, Bali chose to be neutral and give the widest tolerance to immigrants and their culture. Widest but still have limits that have been set in the customary law of the Balinese people. As a tourist destination Bali should choose to survive and neutral. This has happened since the Majapahit nobles turned to Bali. They chose to be neutral amid the onslaught of Islamization and Christianization. There is no point in resisting the expansion and invasion of Islamic kingdoms like the Demak Kingdom, Samudera Pasai, and not a bit more. There is no use against the VOC that in fact has a fleet power far superior. They chose to retreat, remain silent, and survive but there is no intention to strike at any time. Because they have a clear goal, namely to keep Bali as the heir of the Majapahit Kingdom and as a model and format of Hindu society that is still in synergy until now. Hinduism for Balinese society has become not only a religious identity but has transformed into a lifestyle and a cornerstone of habit that needs to be maintained and preserved. Hinduism Has become the oldest inheritance for the Indonesian nation. As a resident of the Indonesian state who participates in having Bali let us help the efforts of all your ancestors in preserving the culture. Not in religion but in the name of culture. If Bali lost anything we can be proud of?

Elements of Hindu Cultural Civilization Affecting Indonesian Culture

The elements of Indian Hindu culture that came to provoke Indonesian culture consisted of at least seven elements:

  • Language (Sanskrit), as well as Pallawa letters

Before the Sanskrit entered Indonesia, the Indonesian nation already had Mother tongue. Where at this time has developed Austronesian language that developed in line with the growth of cultivation culture. After the Sankerta language entered accompanied by the use of the letter Pallawa, the nation of Indonesia entered into a period of history that opened with the founding of Kutai kingdom.

  • Technology, especially architecture of buildings and irrigation

Technology in this affairs is not just limited objects that seem today, but the technology in question is essentially a tool used to be able to master the environment. The system of equipment and technology of Hindu culture that provokes Indonesian culture can be seen in architectural and irrigation technology. A concrete example of the influence of the elements of equipment and technology is seen in the format of building temples on the island of Java, such as: Prambanan Temple, Borobudur Temple, Mendut Temple and others. However, it should be remembered that the influence of this part of Hindu culture is not directly swallowed by the Indonesian people, but feel the adjustment with the identity that belongs to the Indonesian people so that the temple format that is in Indonesia is not the same as the temples that are in India .

  • Economic System

The element of Hindu kebudyaan in the field of economic system that affect the culture of Indonesia is with the existence of the economic system contained in the Kingdom of Sriwijaya, that is with the construction of the largest port at that time, which is used as a location to stop all traders from anywhere. This is evidenced by the rapidly growing economic civilization of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya.

  • Social system

The element of Hindu culture in the field of the social system that provokes Indonesian culture in this affair is evident in the basic concept of the Kingdom system and the Color system that developed in Indonesia. Because, before Hindu culture into Indonesia, the Indonesian people are not familiar with the royal system and the Color system. This is proven by the first kingdom in Indonesia is the kingdom that beridentitaskan Hindu (Hindu kingdom) that is the kingdom of Kutai.

  • Knowledge system

In the system of knowledge, the influence of Hindu culture appears in medical science, which is contained in Usada’s books, the Law of Law between the differences in Manawadharmasastra, and the knowledge of sexology present in Kamasutra’s book.

  • Religion or Religion

Hindu culture gives influence in the field of religion that is in the form of Hinduism and Buddhism. In terms of belief or religion, the Indonesian people do not swallow Hindu cultural influence in the field of religion because before Hinduism came to Indonesia, the Indonesian people are familiar with the belief system for ancestral spirits which is a native habit of Indonesia adjacent to the worship for Sang Hyang Widhi is the influence of Hindu culture.

  • Art

The element of art is a very prominent element in a culture when compared with other elements. Concerning the art part of the Hindu culture that provokes Indonesian culture appears in the form of literary arts, building art, sculpture and ornamental art (Koentjaraningrat, 1980: 84).

Hindu and Buddhist Influence on the Kingdom Period in Indonesia

Kutai Kingdom

Kutai Kingdom is the oldest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia 4th century AD. Historical evidence with found 7 pieces of inscriptions in yupa format that uses Sanskrit letter Pallawa in the form of poetry. The inscriptions of Sanskrit inscriptions and Pallawa letters indicate that the Kutai kingdom has been influenced by Hinduism from India, where language and writings are not ruled by Brahmins who occupy the highest status in society. This group also presumably led the vratyastoma ceremony for the inauguration of Aswawarman and Mulawarman as king and Reverend Brahmin of Hinduism in the Kingdom of Kutai.

One of the inscriptions in the form of yupa recites that the king who ruled was King Mulawarman who is a great king, a virtuous, strong, Aswawarman’s son, granddaughter of Kundungga. Kudungga’s name is probably a native name that has not been influenced by India, while the word ending -warman is the name commonly used in India. This indicates that when Kudungga had a child named Aswawarman, Kutai’s kingdom had been influenced by Hinduism. Other inscriptions are all related to the yajna performed by Raja Mulawarman. According to the story of the locals, the Hindu Kingdom in East Kalimantan called Kutai Martapura is held to 25 generations. The last king had the name Dharma Setia surpassed by Prince Sinum Panji Mendapa who was Muslim at the beginning of the 17th century.

Kingdom of Tarumanegara

The kingdom of Tarumanegara stood in West Java during the 4-5 century AD. The ruling king is Purnawarman. Evidence of the existence of this kingdom seen from found 7 inscriptions include: Ciaruteun, Kebon Kopi, Jambu, Pasir Awi, Estuary Ciaten, Tugu, and Lebak. This inscription uses the letter Pallawa with Sanskrit. The seven inscriptions give an explanation about the existence of Purnawarman kingdom in West Java.

Among the most important are:

  • Ciaruteun Inscription

This inscription pronounces the existence of the former footprints like the foot of Lord Vishnu namely the glorious leg of Purnawarman, king in the courageous Taruma. While in Kebon Coffee pronounced elephant footprint image mentioned as elephant foot of Dewa Indra (Airawata).

  • Tugu Inscription

This inscription is the longest and most comprehensive inscription among the inscriptions of King Purnawarman. This prasasati recite King Purnawarman who successfully dig a river has the name Gomati flowing in the middle of the palace of King Purnawarman. Excavations are carried out in 21 days with a length of 12 km. The work was blocked by giving 1000 bulls to brahmins.

In addition to these inscriptions, there are 3 pieces of artifacts (statues) found:

  • Arca Rajarsi

In the monument inscription is also pronounced that this statue reflects rajarsi showing the properties of Vishnu-Surya, and Purnawarman felt the adherents of the doctrine. W.F. Stutterheim assumed the statue is Ciwa statue dating from the 11th century AD.

  • Arca Wisnu Cibuaya I

It is thought to date from the 7th century AD, felt to have similarities with Pallawa art style in South India from the seventh to the eighth centuries AD, or to Calukya (Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro, et al 1984: 43)

  • Arca Wisnu Cibuaya II

Found in Cibuaya region also, allegedly as a rather old statue seen from the side of the type of stone materials used, the format of the statue, the format of the body and crown.

From all the artifacts, both inscriptions and statues are found, it can be seen that the kingdom of Tarumanegara is influenced by Hinduism. This kingdom is the second kingdom in Indonesia. Elements of longing in the reign of King Purnawarman most clearly expressed in the inscriptions, among others, pronounced in Ciaruteun inscriptions about the image of the foot of the god Vishnu, inscription Guava about the footprint of elephant footprint Airawata the elephant of God Indra and this business describes the existence of elements which is contained in Rg.Weda. Furthermore, in Tugu inscriptions revealed about the implementation of the sacrifice ceremony after completion of the excavation of a river with the gift of 1000 cows to Brahmana. This expression indicates the existence of yadnya practice and gift for brahmana no different is the responsibility of execution of fund doctrine punia which is from the doctrine of Hinduism.

The elements of Hindu Indian customs that affect the customs of Indonesia during the kingdom of Tarumanegara especially during the reign of King Purnawarman can be seen from the habit of writing that has been using articles and Sanskrit language in addition to Hinduism. But Hindu influence is still not powerful on the group of ordinary people, but the elite aristocratic group of the kingdom of Purnawarman kingdom most strongly hold the Hindu culture of India. They are an educated group that controls Sanskrit and Pallawa letters. King Purnawarman himself is a devout and closest Hindu adherent to the Brahmin group. He gave 1000 slembu to this group inscribed in Tugu inscriptions, indicating the close proof of the relationship. Economically expressed in the inscription of Tugu, the excavation of the river Gomati shows that the king Purnawarman attach great attention to the welfare of society, especially in the field of agriculture and tranquility as the controller of the flood.