The elements of Indian Hindu culture that came to provoke Indonesian culture consisted of at least seven elements:
- Language (Sanskrit), as well as Pallawa letters
Before the Sanskrit entered Indonesia, the Indonesian nation already had Mother tongue. Where at this time has developed Austronesian language that developed in line with the growth of cultivation culture. After the Sankerta language entered accompanied by the use of the letter Pallawa, the nation of Indonesia entered into a period of history that opened with the founding of Kutai kingdom.
- Technology, especially architecture of buildings and irrigation
Technology in this affairs is not just limited objects that seem today, but the technology in question is essentially a tool used to be able to master the environment. The system of equipment and technology of Hindu culture that provokes Indonesian culture can be seen in architectural and irrigation technology. A concrete example of the influence of the elements of equipment and technology is seen in the format of building temples on the island of Java, such as: Prambanan Temple, Borobudur Temple, Mendut Temple and others. However, it should be remembered that the influence of this part of Hindu culture is not directly swallowed by the Indonesian people, but feel the adjustment with the identity that belongs to the Indonesian people so that the temple format that is in Indonesia is not the same as the temples that are in India .
- Economic System
The element of Hindu kebudyaan in the field of economic system that affect the culture of Indonesia is with the existence of the economic system contained in the Kingdom of Sriwijaya, that is with the construction of the largest port at that time, which is used as a location to stop all traders from anywhere. This is evidenced by the rapidly growing economic civilization of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya.
- Social system
The element of Hindu culture in the field of the social system that provokes Indonesian culture in this affair is evident in the basic concept of the Kingdom system and the Color system that developed in Indonesia. Because, before Hindu culture into Indonesia, the Indonesian people are not familiar with the royal system and the Color system. This is proven by the first kingdom in Indonesia is the kingdom that beridentitaskan Hindu (Hindu kingdom) that is the kingdom of Kutai.
- Knowledge system
In the system of knowledge, the influence of Hindu culture appears in medical science, which is contained in Usada’s books, the Law of Law between the differences in Manawadharmasastra, and the knowledge of sexology present in Kamasutra’s book.
- Religion or Religion
Hindu culture gives influence in the field of religion that is in the form of Hinduism and Buddhism. In terms of belief or religion, the Indonesian people do not swallow Hindu cultural influence in the field of religion because before Hinduism came to Indonesia, the Indonesian people are familiar with the belief system for ancestral spirits which is a native habit of Indonesia adjacent to the worship for Sang Hyang Widhi is the influence of Hindu culture.
The element of art is a very prominent element in a culture when compared with other elements. Concerning the art part of the Hindu culture that provokes Indonesian culture appears in the form of literary arts, building art, sculpture and ornamental art (Koentjaraningrat, 1980: 84).
Hindu and Buddhist Influence on the Kingdom Period in Indonesia
Kutai Kingdom is the oldest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia 4th century AD. Historical evidence with found 7 pieces of inscriptions in yupa format that uses Sanskrit letter Pallawa in the form of poetry. The inscriptions of Sanskrit inscriptions and Pallawa letters indicate that the Kutai kingdom has been influenced by Hinduism from India, where language and writings are not ruled by Brahmins who occupy the highest status in society. This group also presumably led the vratyastoma ceremony for the inauguration of Aswawarman and Mulawarman as king and Reverend Brahmin of Hinduism in the Kingdom of Kutai.
One of the inscriptions in the form of yupa recites that the king who ruled was King Mulawarman who is a great king, a virtuous, strong, Aswawarman’s son, granddaughter of Kundungga. Kudungga’s name is probably a native name that has not been influenced by India, while the word ending -warman is the name commonly used in India. This indicates that when Kudungga had a child named Aswawarman, Kutai’s kingdom had been influenced by Hinduism. Other inscriptions are all related to the yajna performed by Raja Mulawarman. According to the story of the locals, the Hindu Kingdom in East Kalimantan called Kutai Martapura is held to 25 generations. The last king had the name Dharma Setia surpassed by Prince Sinum Panji Mendapa who was Muslim at the beginning of the 17th century.
Kingdom of Tarumanegara
The kingdom of Tarumanegara stood in West Java during the 4-5 century AD. The ruling king is Purnawarman. Evidence of the existence of this kingdom seen from found 7 inscriptions include: Ciaruteun, Kebon Kopi, Jambu, Pasir Awi, Estuary Ciaten, Tugu, and Lebak. This inscription uses the letter Pallawa with Sanskrit. The seven inscriptions give an explanation about the existence of Purnawarman kingdom in West Java.
Among the most important are:
- Ciaruteun Inscription
This inscription pronounces the existence of the former footprints like the foot of Lord Vishnu namely the glorious leg of Purnawarman, king in the courageous Taruma. While in Kebon Coffee pronounced elephant footprint image mentioned as elephant foot of Dewa Indra (Airawata).
- Tugu Inscription
This inscription is the longest and most comprehensive inscription among the inscriptions of King Purnawarman. This prasasati recite King Purnawarman who successfully dig a river has the name Gomati flowing in the middle of the palace of King Purnawarman. Excavations are carried out in 21 days with a length of 12 km. The work was blocked by giving 1000 bulls to brahmins.
In addition to these inscriptions, there are 3 pieces of artifacts (statues) found:
- Arca Rajarsi
In the monument inscription is also pronounced that this statue reflects rajarsi showing the properties of Vishnu-Surya, and Purnawarman felt the adherents of the doctrine. W.F. Stutterheim assumed the statue is Ciwa statue dating from the 11th century AD.
- Arca Wisnu Cibuaya I
It is thought to date from the 7th century AD, felt to have similarities with Pallawa art style in South India from the seventh to the eighth centuries AD, or to Calukya (Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro, et al 1984: 43)
- Arca Wisnu Cibuaya II
Found in Cibuaya region also, allegedly as a rather old statue seen from the side of the type of stone materials used, the format of the statue, the format of the body and crown.
From all the artifacts, both inscriptions and statues are found, it can be seen that the kingdom of Tarumanegara is influenced by Hinduism. This kingdom is the second kingdom in Indonesia. Elements of longing in the reign of King Purnawarman most clearly expressed in the inscriptions, among others, pronounced in Ciaruteun inscriptions about the image of the foot of the god Vishnu, inscription Guava about the footprint of elephant footprint Airawata the elephant of God Indra and this business describes the existence of elements which is contained in Rg.Weda. Furthermore, in Tugu inscriptions revealed about the implementation of the sacrifice ceremony after completion of the excavation of a river with the gift of 1000 cows to Brahmana. This expression indicates the existence of yadnya practice and gift for brahmana no different is the responsibility of execution of fund doctrine punia which is from the doctrine of Hinduism.
The elements of Hindu Indian customs that affect the customs of Indonesia during the kingdom of Tarumanegara especially during the reign of King Purnawarman can be seen from the habit of writing that has been using articles and Sanskrit language in addition to Hinduism. But Hindu influence is still not powerful on the group of ordinary people, but the elite aristocratic group of the kingdom of Purnawarman kingdom most strongly hold the Hindu culture of India. They are an educated group that controls Sanskrit and Pallawa letters. King Purnawarman himself is a devout and closest Hindu adherent to the Brahmin group. He gave 1000 slembu to this group inscribed in Tugu inscriptions, indicating the close proof of the relationship. Economically expressed in the inscription of Tugu, the excavation of the river Gomati shows that the king Purnawarman attach great attention to the welfare of society, especially in the field of agriculture and tranquility as the controller of the flood.