Month: August 2018

Thugs and Gambling in the Hindu Mataram Age

Recently the destruction of gambling is being promoted by our police. Likewise raids on thuggery and prostitution. Gambling, thuggery, and prostitution are felt to be one of the “diseases of society” that do not cause a lot of anxiety, such as imprisonment or crime. In the past, criminal acts were not often associated with gambling and prostitution. So to minimize these crimes, the peace apparatus always collaborates with gamblers or gamblers (gambling supervisors) and pedestrians (prostitutes).

Unfortunately gamblers and pedestrians are only recited briefly with royal officers who are more involved in the community, like tax officers and judicial officers, so you do not know what the role of gamblers and pedestrians is at that time.

Ancient sources that reveal gamblers and peddlers include the Kuti Inscription (840 AD), Kancana (860 AD), Waharu I (873 AD), Barsahan (908 AD), Kaladi (909 AD), Sugih Manek (915 M), S unemployment (928 AD), Cane (1021 AD), and Hantang (1135 AD). Based on the information from these sources, restrictions, gambling, prostitution, drunkenness, and the like are among the forms of thuggery. To anticipate these negative actions, the authorities form a book on criminal law. What is very well known is the Kutara-Manawadharmasastra Book. This book then became the basis of Majapahit Legislation.

The application of the two books was a great success thanks to the ability of the executors, namely Raja Hayam Wuruk and Patih Gajah Mada. Both can carry Majapahit as a peaceful and prosperous country for decades.

Spoliation

Crime which at least revealed inscriptions, especially from the Hindu Mataram era, was a crackdown and murder. The relatively wide length is pronounced in the Balingawan Inscription (891 AD), as has been stated by Boechari’s epigraph (deceased), as follows: For a period of time the people of Balingawan village often felt uneasy because they too often paid fines on rah kasawur and wanke kabunan. Rah Kasawur is a bloody fight, while wanke kabunan are corpses exposed to dew. That is to say a murder that occurred at night then the body was thrown so that it was exposed to dew in the morning.

But the perpetrator of the fight and the murder is unknown. Time and time again the villagers found blood scattered and a corpse lay in the Gurubhakti moor in the morning. Because the moor is in the Balingawan district, it is the people of the village who must be responsible and pay the fine.

Various types of durians are generally in the element of an inscription called sukhaduhkha, which roughly means all bad and good actions in society. For example wakcapala (cursing others), hastacapala (fighting), mamuk (rampaging rampage), and amungpang (robbing, robbing, raping).

The existence of a problem of redemption can also be interpreted from the Mantyasih Inscription (907 AD). Because of that, Rakai Watukura Dyah Balitung handed over the gift of sima (the land that was drafted) to five patih in Mantyasih alternately. They are considered meritorious because they have filled the demand of the people of the village of Kuning in order to maintain peace in the streets. Since their existence, the people in Kuning village feel no longer afraid.

The same thing was revealed by the Kaladi Inscription (909 AD). Once there was a charcoal forest that alienated the villages of Gayam and Pyapya so that the residents of both villages became frightened. This is because the villagers always get an attack from Mariwung which creates the merchants and fishers feel anxious and anxious about their safety day and night (M. Boechari, 1986).

In the Hindu Mataram kingdom there was even a group of people who often disturbed peace (samahala). The Rukam inscription (907 AD) alludes to this, “… All the farmers of the village of Rukam requested protection for the monastery in Limwung against people who had not infrequently disturbed the security of the region …” (Titi Surti Nastiti et al, 1982).

Other forms of vain are informed of the Kamalagyan Inscription (1037 AD). This might be an ancient style sabotage. “… There is a group of people who want to destroy the dam that just passed. Even though the construction of the reservoir was carried out with community self-help and interference by the king …, “the excerpt was taken.

The case of pencopetan was proposed by the Wulig Inscription (934 M) and Baru (1030 AD), namely about picking up fish on the dam and picking up plants in the garden.

Fine

There is a crime, there must be a punishment. But until this time the inscription had not yet pronounced the amount of punishment imposed on the perpetrators. Only at a glance, the Wuatantija Inscription (880 AD) wrote that they were subject to fines in the form of … mas muang wuru wuruan 2 i one year …

Some inscriptions such as Waharu II (929 AD) recite a sentence in the form of a curse. The violator of durjana was sworn in so that his feet were hit by rotten mines, died of edema (enlarged stomach), went to five tribulations (pancamahapataka), suffered epilepsy, and got embarrassed.

The curse and oath were issued by the Wukayana Inscription (the number of the year was broken). Whoever dares to disturb sima in Wukayana is like a chicken head that has broken from its body and will not return. Like eggs that have been crushed, they will not return to intact again. If the person goes to the forest to snake a snake. When going to the fields to be struck by lightning even though it doesn’t rain. When you come to the river to be entangled with aquatic animals.

About legal awareness, people used to be worthy of imitation. They don’t judge themselves like today. The criminals must be brought to court, the rules. That’s where it is determined whether the criminal is charged with a fine or must be punished by the body. The amount of fine also varies. If you do anjarah (robbing), you will be fined 20,000, while if you have a maximum of 160,000. Whether or not the unit is known.

The fine, according to the information from archaeologist Slamet Pinardi (1986), was also imposed on a group of people (people who killed a husband and wife during the night to get their property) and ambaranang (people who burned houses in a village and residents who ran to outside killed).

The application of legal books in the past was the most stringent. This can be witnessed when Queen Sima shaves the child’s leg because she has violated the royal law. Even though all the ministers had asked for relief, still Queen Sima did not budge with her decision. We who live in the present, should have hard laws like those in Majapahit and rulers who don’t look like the Queen Sima.

5 causes of the collapse of the Majapahit – Hindu Kingdom in Indonesia

The Majapahit kingdom was the last Indianization kingdom in Indonesia; based in East Java, it was established between the 13th and 16th centuries. The founder of the Majapahit empire was Wijaya, a prince of Singhasari, who fled when Jayakatwang, ruler of Kediri, took over the palace. In 1292 the Mongol army came to Java to answer the insult to the Chinese emperor, Kublai Khan, by Kertanegara, king Singhasari, who had been replaced by Jayakatwang.

Wijaya collaborated with the Mongol army to surpass Jayakatwang; Wijaya then turned against the Mongols and removed them from Java. Factors causing the collapse of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms in general are as follows.

The absence of the formation of new leaders (regeneration), like those who were involved in the Majapahit Kingdom. Gajah Mada as Patih Amangkubhumi held all important positions, he did not give the next generation the opportunity to appear, to the extent that Gajah Mada died there was no capable and experienced successor.

The weakness of the central government as a result of the ongoing civil war such as the Paregreg War which weakened the domination of the kingdom like Bre Wirabhumi with the Wardhana Wikrama. The urgency of the kingdom as a result of the emergence of more and more powerful kingdoms. For example, the Majapahit kingdom was attacked by the Demak kingdom. The ongoing civil war was like the Paregreg War which actually weakened the dominance of the kingdom like Bre Wirabumi with the Wardhana Wikrama.

The large number of regions that have gouged out the impact of weak monitoring of the central government and its lower kingdoms created an independent kingdom and were no longer bound by the central government.

Economic and Trade Setbacks.
The public began to be interested in Islam which was spread from Malacca, Gresik and Tuban. The Majapahit kingdom collapsed in 1500 AD. The factors that resulted in the collapse of the Majapahit Kingdom were as follows:

1. There is no formation of new leaders (there is no regeneration).
2. Gajah Mada as Patih Amangkubumi holds all important positions. He did not give the next generation the opportunity to appear, to the point that after the death of Gajah Mada there was no capable and experienced successor.
3. Civil war weakens strength. The Paregreg War brought havoc to the people and the nobility, to the point that it weakened strength and there was no unity. The regions gouged out themselves, because the administration of the center of the weak and chaotic Majapahit Kingdom, all the dukes of Java and the kingdoms outside Java gouged out
4. The weakness of the central government in the impact of civil war resulted in the economic decadence of Majapahit. Trade in the Archipelago is levied by Malay and Islamic traders.
5. Entry and publication of Islam. The dukes and coastal areas of the inland areas that are Muslims feel they are not bound by the rule of the Majapahit Kingdom, to the extent that they are disobedient and loyal to the Hindu authorities.

The Majapahit kingdom collapsed slowly but certainly after the departure of the leader who brought it to victory, Hayam Wuruk.

After Hayam Wuruk’s death, many times Majapahit’s domination changed. The kingdom’s internal conflict stimulated war, accelerating the destruction of the kingdom which almost controlled the archipelago and even a number of Southeast Asian regions. It is still unclear what events mark the end of this kingdom, as many sources say that Majapahit collapsed due to an attack from the Islamic kingdom of Demak.

There were also those who recited the internal conflict between Bhre Kertabumi as the last king of Majapahit, attacked by Bhatara Wijaya who was also a member of the kingdom, which then felt the internal conflict ended the establishment of Majapahit.

But, of course the collapsed Majapahit was followed by the end of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in the archipelago. Because after the collapse of Majapahit, not a few emerging Islamic kingdoms were victorious. In Java Island itself was once the center of the Majapahit government, began to be replaced by the Demak Sultanate which was located on the northern coast of Java, this empire was also occupied by the Majapahit territory.

Not the first sultanate in the archipelago, before Demak had stood as much as the kingdom in the archipelago, for example Samudra Pasai which had existed since the 13th century. But arguably the dominant Demak is more powerful than as many sultanates that have already existed. The Demak Sultanate also helped accelerate the spread of Islam to all the archipelago, not only in Java. Islam also began to shift Hinduism and Buddhism which were previously dominant.

A number of dominant sultanates are also getting stronger, not just Demak. Like the Aceh Sultanate in Aceh, then Gowa – Tallo in Sulawesi, the Ternate and Tidore Sultanates in Maluku, and other sultanates. The collapse of Majapahit can be said to be the turning point of Indonesian history, because it ended the existence of the influence of the powerful Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in the archipelago. Islam is also the most dominant religion in Indonesia and it has survived until now.

4 Reasons Why Indonesians Easily Accept Hindu Buddhist Teachings

There are not a few theories that struggle to explain how the process of entry of Hindu and Buddhist doctrines to Indonesia. However, apart from the whole theory, in fact these two religions has become a popular religion that followed the majority of Indonesian society at that time. The acceptance of the people and people of Indonesia at that time can not be separated from the existence of some of the underlying arguments. Here we will explain the argument why the people of Indonesia are easy to accept the whole Buddhist Buddhist doctrine with the proofs.

Why Indonesians Easily Receive Hindu Buddhist Teachings?
There are at least 4 propositions underlying why the people of Indonesia are easy to accept the doctrine of Hindu Buddhism in the past. The four arguments are the people of Indonesia who still do not know the religion, the nature of the open people, the common cultural similarities between Buddhist Hinduism with local beliefs, and the influence of the ruler of the archipelago at that time.

1. Indonesian people are not familiar with religion

The first reason behind why Indonesian people are easy to accept the Hindu Buddhist doctrine is the fact that the people of the archipelago at that time are still not familiar with religion. They are merely familiar with animistic beliefs and dynamism with limited knowledge. The arrival of the Indians who then spread the new teachings more perfect make them interested to learn it.

From the historical evidence available, Indonesian people’s interest in Buddhist Hindu religious doctrine is demonstrated by their active attitude to study the doctrine of both religions by coming directly to India.

Nalanda inscriptions found in South India for example, shows the request of the king of Sriwijaya for the king of Nalanda in order to make a monastery as a special location of Sriwijaya society who want to learn Buddhism directly in India. [Read Also: Royal Hindu Kingdom in Indonesia]

2. The open nature of the Indonesian people

In addition to the background of the archipelago nation that is still not familiar with religion, the acceptance of Hindu and Buddhist doctrine is also caused by the nature of the people of Indonesia, which is not uncommon times open to differences. That openness encourages social interaction and makes the spread of Hindu Buddhism easier.

3. Hindu Buddhism has a culture that is almost similar to the community’s initial belief

Cultural customs of Hinduism and Buddhism have in fact not a little similarity with the culture of animist beliefs and dynamism that is currently growing in the community. This is demonstrated by the similarity of punden staircases with the sacred format of Buddhist worship used for worship, the similarity of religious ceremonies, and the same belief in life after death.

The common cultural similarity between the Buddhist Hindu doctrine and the prevailing local beliefs, creating the spread and acceptance of the society towards the Buddhist Hindu doctrine becomes easier.

4. The influence of the ruler of the archipelago

The influence of the rulers of the archipelago who support the spread of Hinduism Buddhism became the argument why the people of Indonesia are easy to accept the doctrine of Hindu Buddhism in the past.

The point of view of the people of Indonesia at that time who saw their king as an ambassador of God encouraged them to follow what was the command and action of their king. When the king embraces Hindu or Buddhist religion, then all his people will do the same.

Well, so are the three propositions underlying why the people of Indonesia are easy to accept the doctrine of Hindu Buddhism. With these three theorems, Hinduism and Buddhism are encouraged to become two religions of some large societies in the archipelago to the extent that the birth of a number of kingdoms with the style of religion in the past.